DC Motors and Their Various Types
A motor is an electro-mechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. A DC motor converts direct current that is the electrical energy associated into mechanical energy.
Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism which is either electro mechanical or electronic. This is required to periodically change the direction of current flow in parts of the motor. A 12v stepper motor is quite a well-known motor.
These motors are categorized into different categories based on its functioning or structure. Nowadays various sophisticated motors such as mini stepper motor, micro-stepper motor, etcetera have been launched in the market to execute the functions with higher efficiency.
However, switching power supply to the motor is an alternating current form, and this current is converted to direct current using a commutator ring in general. The important thing to keep in mind is that we need to have is a flexible shaft as these devices are the mechanical devices that connect the rotating shafts and absorb misalignments with them.
The Various Types of DC Motors are Described Below:
1. Brushed DC motor:
These types of motors generally consist of a rotor which is also known as the armature. It also consists of a split ring commutator that converts AC current to DC current and may consist of a permanent magnet stator.
An electrical power source feeds the rotor windings present in the motor and the brushes connected to it. This temporarily magnetizes the magnetic core.
As the rotor turns, the commutator switches power, which ensures that the magnetic poles do not ever align in the direction of the magnetic field of the stator field.
This is necessary so that the rotor never stops. A high torque stepper motor may be a brushed motor.
2. Brushless DC Motor:
This type of BLDC Motor or Brushless DC Motor was designed so as to overcome the problems faced in the design of the brushes. In this motor instead of mechanical brushes, the electronic switch is synchronized with the rotor switch.
The hybrid stepper motor generally uses the brushless DC motor concept. The Rotary Encoder is the electronic device that programs the execution of the motor.
3. Coreless or Ironless Motor:
This is a special type of motor which can be either brushed or brushless DC motor. This type of motor is designed in such a way that it is optimized for acceleration.
The specialty is that the rotors are constructed using a core that does not contain any iron. Thus, this rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder or a self-supporting structure that fit inside the stator magnets. For instance, high current stepper driver is quite popular.
4. Printed Armature or Pancake Type Motors:
Pancake motors or printed armature motors are also known as servo disc motors. These types of motors are usually used for various industrial applications generally wherever rapid stop-start, zero cogging, low inductance, precise electronic motor control, a low thermal time constant or just a slim, axially flat packaging profile is needed.
The magnets are placed in the form of a circle with air gaps, and the entire arrangement looks like a pancake from where the name comes. Thus, bipolar stepper motor might have such an arrangement.
These are different types of motors, and hence we can select the motor according to our requirements.